Monday, 5 October 2020

Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020

Let's have a look at Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020, a game that asks the questions "should I turn on the pitot heater" and "what does inert sep on mean" and "why does the plane keep stalling" and finally "I'm going to die here" and "it was all my fault", which technically aren't questions, but they did go through my mind as I flew through a storm over the glaciers of southern Chile.

In real life I've never done that. I've never flown through a storm over the glaciers of southern Chile. After trying it out in Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020 I'm not keen on repeating the experience, but at the same time I do want to experience it again because it was fun. There was a certain frisson of excitement. It was dangerous, but fun.

That's why people get themselves killed, isn't it? That frisson of excitement. It's a primal thing. After escaping from tigers our ancestors were flooded with a sense of relief; they wanted to experience that sensation again. Old men hanker for it.

Alternatively you can turn off MSFS2020's damage model and use the computer autopilot to explore the world risk-free, but come on. Amelia Earhart didn't have the option of turning off the damage model. Her autopilot was a bunch of gears attached to a cable. She could fly a plane just fine, and she was a girl.

You don't want to be beaten by a girl, do you? Admittedly Earhart did actually die. She must have hankered for that frisson of danger too, and that's what killed her. Perhaps men and women aren't so different in that respect.

Lost over the ocean in a Lockheed Electra. That's pretty manly. In another world she made it home safely, and when the Second World War broke out she offered her services to the US Army Air Forces, who completely ignored her because she was a girl, and then she retired into relative poverty in the 1950s and spent the rest of her life dreaming of planes.

Say again, this place

I'm digressing here. MSF2020 is a reboot of the venerable Flight Simulator series, which dates back to Sublogic's original game from 1982. Back in the 1980s and 1990s the IBM PC was very bad at moving sprites around the screen, so it was rubbish at Street Fighter 2, but it could crunch numbers like nobody's business. Therefore it was the go-to platform for flight simulators. Not just civil simulators but also the WW2-themed Air Warrior, which was one of the first massively multiplayer online games.

The flight simulator market thinned out in the late 1990s, and by the time of Flight Simulator X in 2006 Microsoft's product was essentially the only mainstream franchise left standing*. It had a vibrant market of add-on scenery and aeroplanes, which was in some respects ahead of its time, but in an age of Grand Theft Auto and Crysis flight simulators fell out of fashion and Microsoft seemed to lose interest in FSX. People just didn't buy joysticks any more.

* As of 2020 the surviving competitors in the civil flight simulator market are Lockheed's Prepar3D, an extensive modification of Flight Simulator X intended as a professional flight training tool; FlightGear, an open source simulator that tends to be sold by eBay and Amazon sellers in packaging that makes it look like Flight Simulator, and XPlane, which isn't open source. Are they any good? I have no idea, I haven't tried them out. I love you, dear reader, but I feel that my love is better invested elsewhere.

The game uses a mixture of hand-made scenery and autogenerated models synthesised from Bing Maps' top-down views of the world. On the one hand the synthesis is very impressive, and it was the only way the developers could recreate the entire world, but on the other hand there's still a lot of room for third-party handcrafted models. They've obviously modelled Ponte Vecchio, but not the other bridges. In general bridges and viaducts are a weak spot.

A later patch reworked the water, which at least in early versions of the game looked out-of-scale. The buildings however are uncanny.

Microsoft tried to reboot the series with Flight, an online-only title that was launched in 2012. It only had two planes, and the only scenery was Hawaii. It failed to set the world afire and so Microsoft shut it down just a few months later. It's no longer available.

I took a trip over the Aral Sea, although it's now a large lake because the water was diverted for irrigation back in the 1980s. Some of the land textures are jagged - the area isn't high on Bing Maps' list of priorities - but nonetheless I still had the sensation of flying over a parched desert.

Some aircraft have weather radar. In this screenshot there's a lot of weather, and I'm in the middle of it.

The June 2019 announcement that Microsoft was working on new Flight Simulator came as a pleasant surprise. The developers - a French company called Asobo - were obscure, but the pre-release screenshots were very impressive. After a brief public beta period the game was released in August 2020 to generally strong reviews. The major criticisms are that it has a lot of bugs and the airliner flight models don't feel realistic, and it needs a very powerful PC to run at 4K, but otherwise the critical consensus is that it's a visually stunning first effort.

Each of those white dots is an airfield. Some are major airports, some are just grass strips. You can fly from any one of them.

In this flight I did a circuit of Easter Island, looking for Moai. I couldn't find any. As mentioned elsewhere in the article the game has fewer hand-made models than FSX, but compensates for it with a much better building-generation engine.

In the first month of release it has apparently sold a million copies, no doubt helped by the fact that actual real-life air travel has been disrupted by the plague. The developers promise to support it for at least ten years, which is nice to know, although given that so much of the game is streamed from the internet there's an ever-present worry that Microsoft will turn off the servers, rendering most of the world an undetailed husk. The entire world map apparently takes up around 2-3 petabytes of data - that's 2-3 million gigabytes - so there's no chance whatsoever you'll be able to backup the entire world. The game will run in offline mode but with low-detail scenery.

One popular pastime is to fly over your local neighbourhood. I've walked up to the top of that hill, past the badges, and it's more or less spot-on except for a couple of spurious houses.

What's it like on modest hardware? Let's have a look.

Flying through fog is surprisingly easy once you learn to use the autopilot. But what if the autopilot fails? Supposedly it takes an average of 178 seconds for visual flight pilots to become disorientated when flying through instrument flight conditions, and I can believe that. You have to train yourself to see with an attitude indicator, speedometer, and compass instead of your eyes.

Shek Pik reservoir in Hong Kong, in the game and real life respectively. As you can see the terrain elevation is spot-on.

Bad stuff first. The game is a 120gb download, and although it's available with Steam it downloads its own client first, then asks you to leave the client open while it downloads the game. It's not much fun if you have a data cap. The game is available as a 10-DVD set - this is the version I have, and I wrote about the installation process here - but it still has to download several gigabytes' worth of patches, and the terrain is streamed from the internet.

Twilight of LGA 1155
LGA 1155 is a socket released by Intel back in 2011. It remained competitive for an unusually long time, but a number of modern games have overwhelmed it, MSFS2020 among them. It's actually one generation older than MSFS2020's minimum requirements, but my machine is at the upper limit of what LGA 1155 could do so it runs the game. Confusingly LGA 1155 was replaced by LGA 1150, and then LGA 1151 and LGA 1120 (they're named after the number of pins; a bad idea).

LGA 1155's star chip was the i5-2500k, a neat little quad-core 64-bit chip that ran at 3.3ghz but could be easily overclocked to 4+ghz. The i5-2500k remained state-of-the-art until the middle of the decade and only really hit a wall when 4K gaming became mainstream in recent years. With a good graphics card, lots of memory, and an SSD, an i5-2500k system will still run most modern games at 1080, but at moderate settings and not at a steady 60fps.

If your aircraft starts to ice up you have a number of options. Dive below the clouds, where it's warmer; turn on the anti-ice system; keep going and hope for the best; climb up into the sunlight.

I have always loved you, though I was born a galaxy away

I mention LGA 1155 because it was the last Intel chipset that supported Windows XP, so for a lot of PC owners it was the point at which they upgraded from a dual-core, 32-bit XP system with a 4gb memory limit to the modern age of 64-bit chips with four or more cores fitted to motherboards that can address 32gb of memory or more. I built my own PC from parts back in 2011, with an i5-2500k at the core, although I've since upgraded it to a Xeon 1275, which is the server analogue of the i7-3770k.

The i7-3770k is essentially the most powerful CPU available for LGA 1155, the end of the line for that platform. It has four logical cores and four virtual cores generated by a technology called hyperthreading. It benchmarks 50% faster than the i5-2500k, but for a long time the cost didn't justify the upgrade; as of 2020 however they're cheap on the used market.

The game uses a form of megatexturing, as with Id Software's Rage, but on a planetary scale.

My machine's weak link is the GPU, a Geforce 1650 with only 3gb of memory, but MSF2020's built-in frame counter often says that I'm limited by the CPU, because MSF2020 taxes the whole machine. Most games can be solved by throwing a better GPU at them, but not MSF2020. It streams the world from the internet, so it benefits from a fast, stable internet connection; it has to load a lot of cached data, so it benefits from being installed on an SSD; the CPU has to instruct the GPU do draw potentially thousands of buildings, while simultaneously running flight and weather models, so you need a good multicore CPU. A good GPU is of course essential, but with MSFS2020 it needs to be part of a strong system.

Therefore if you have an LGA 1155 machine you really have to max it out. In my experience the game is perfectly playable and good-looking at 1080 on my machine, but even so it occasionally stutters, and at low altitudes over detailed cities - Tokyo and New York, for example - it chugs. 4K would overwhelm it. I get around 40fps flying over bare terrain or in cloud, 25-35fps over New York, with autogenerated traffic turned off. I find that putting most of the sliders at medium, with reflections at high, clouds at ultra, anti-aliasing at TAA, texture resolution at high strikes a good balance between performance and looks.

Bugs? To date the game has only crashed once, during a period of high multiplayer activity after the release of a reworked Japan. Some of the terrain looks awful, in different ways:

Victoria falls really doesn't work. The photogrammetry engine got confused.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is simultaneously a flat texture map and a model, each with a different shadow. The surrounding buildings are 3D but the Duomo and Battistero are flat.

This is the island of Miyake, south of mainland Japan. The volcano isn't filled in, so the game generates ghosting inside the crater.

The autopilot occasionally seems flaky, but that might just be me. I now set HDG and VS speed modes at the beginning of flight instead of trying to use ALT HOLD, which tended to make the plane crash. The game has two pause modes - active pause keeps the simulation running but holds your plane still in the air, normal ordinary pause-pause freezes the game. Active pause is nice if you want to see the world move around you, but curiously your plane still accelerates and decelerates, even though it's standing still, so you can overspeed if you activate active pause while in a dive, in which case your plane falls apart in mid-air for seemingly no reason.

The airliner and its contrail is part of the ground texture. Occasionally Bing Maps' satellite coverage has cloud cover, which the game is generally smart enough to turn into green grass.

There are grumbles on the internet that the modelling and avionics of the game's two airliners, the Airbus A320 and Boeing 747, are only approximations of the real thing, but I can't tell, I haven't flown either. The 747's in-game cockpit seems unusually bare - a lot of switches are "inop", and some of the navigation panels are just cosmetic - and on my first flight the aircraft seemed keen to turn the autothrottle on immediately after takeoff, which made slowing down to land difficult.

One of the game's strongest elements is the real-time weather / time model - you can switch from live weather to a number of presets while the game is running and also alter the time of day. In the shots above I didn't like the look of that huge cloud, so I made it go away!

Incidentally I have flown in a A320, but sadly not a 747. The 747s are rapidly being withdrawn from commercial service. Even in The Before Times they were an endangered species, but there was still a chance I might be able to fly on one. No longer.

On an unrelated note the AI air traffic controller will clear me to land on a certain runway, but there doesn't seem to be a way to cancel that instruction and pick another one. The in-game map also doesn't point out which runways have an ATC and which are unstaffed, so I worry that I've wasted time trying to talk to ATC staff who aren't there. The in-game map is somewhat akin to Google Earth, but at a much lower level of detail, and when you zoom in it just turns grey, so planning a sightseeing flight is unusually difficult.

Of course the game has only been out for two months and there have only been a couple of patches. The general critical consensus is that the game was released too early, but in Asobo's favour it's obviously a very difficult undertaking; simply clearing the rights to all the in-game textures and building models must require a team of full-time staff (some military airports are censored on Bing Maps, for example).

To date there doesn't seem to be a killer add-on in the marketplace. There are lots of ports from FSX, but no detailed model of a Concorde, for example, or a Second World War fighter plane, but it's still early days.

That's enough gripes. Even at 1080, sub-60fps, the game is visually stunning. Sometimes the ground textures have obvious seams, but on the whole the game renders the world out to the horizon without obvious tiling. The weather model is excellent, the in-cockpit lighting looks very realistic, and there are nice touches such as the reflection of instruments in the cockpit windows at higher graphic settings. The high-temperature exhaust from the turboprop aircraft makes the air shimmer. In the following images the iced-up windows were simultaneously attractive and disconcerting:

There doesn't seem to be a way to open the windows and scrape off the ice so I turned on the windscreen anti-ice feature, and for good measure the engine anti-ice, which sapped some of the power. The game models cars and boats, and the little people who wave signs at the airport, what are they called? aircraft marshals, and the cockpit has an avatar for you and your co-pilot, but you can't get out and walk around. The game doesn't have "space legs". It's not Microsoft Everything Simulator 2020. If you want to have a beer after a strenuous flight you have to have an actual beer in real life.

On one level MSFS2020 is a hard sell, because it's not a game in the conventional sense. It has a number of landing challenges and bush aircraft tests, albeit not to the same extent as FSX - and there are no helicopters, so you can't rescue people from an oil rig (for example) - but for the most part the gameplay consists of generating a flight plan and then navigating between two airports. The game doesn't penalise you for just flying directly between the two locations without using waypoints. You don't have to learn about the downwind leg, whatever that is.

And yet there is something magnetic about navigating through freezing clouds above the Andes, or checking out the Alps at close range, or flying around Easter Island, or buzzing the Golden Gate Bridge etc. Back in 2006 FSX captured some of the sheer visual beauty of flying around, but MSFS2020 trounces it.

At top MSFS2020 (2020), at bottom FSX (2006). Curiously FSX has a few buildings that MSFS2020 doesn't (the Bank of China Tower, just visible at the tip of the Cessna's right wing in the FSX image). In its favour FSX captured the topography of the distant hills accurately, but the lighting obviously belongs to an older generation.

Aircraft? The standard version has two jet airliners, plus a small Cessna business jet, plus a mixture of stunt planes, two-four seat piston aircraft and a couple of smaller turboprops. There's a Cessna Grand Caravan and a Beechcraft King Air, but on the whole the game majors on smaller aircraft; there's no Twin Otter, no Skymaster, and none of the various Fokker / Dornier / Embraer / Bombardier regional turboprop / jetliners. To be honest I don't miss them, but a floatplane or tundra-tyres Twin Otter would be neat.

Uniquely the Icon A5 can land on water. It's unspectacular - there's no wake.

Antarctica was flaky in FSX. Something about the coordinates so far south messed up the texture mapping. MSFS2020 is much the same. The real life McMurdo station is a sprawling little town, whereas here it's represented by a rectangular trailer park.

There are two variations of the Piper Cub, plus the unusual Icon A5, which is a small amphibian. The deluxe and premium deluxe editions add a Boeing 787, a third Piper Cub, and mostly light aircraft, with some variations of the basic models, but nothing particularly killer, so I bought the standard edition.

The game models some of the aeroplane interiors, although you have to use the drone camera to explore them.

The developer mode lets you turn off all the textures and even revert to wireframe mode, in which case the game vaguely resembles the earliest versions of Flight Simulator.

Is it worth the money? Reviewing MSFS2020 is hard. I can't evaluate it as a serious simulation but the 747 in particular has a lot of inoperative switches and the internet is of the opinion that if you are a serious enthusiast, with a mock-up cockpit, it's unfinished. There are grumbles that the flight model is unusually twitchy, and that the big airliners run out of fuel far too quickly, and that binding keyboard controls is needlessly obtuse.

At this early stage the marketplace is barren, and with a game such as this the third-party infrastructure is almost as important as the main event. Furthermore the game is still in active development, so as with No Man's Sky - although hopefully not to the same binary extreme - a year from now it'll be a very different title.

However for a novice such as myself who just wants to explore the world it's terrific, and I feel I got my money's worth. The ground textures aren't as detailed as Google Maps, but they're close, and as mentioned the topgraphy is spot-on. If they introduce helicopters or even a completely autonomous camera it might even develop a second wind as a world simulator, along the lines of Google Earth. The real-time weather / time-of-day slider is almost worth the price of... well, that's hyperbole for a game costing £60-£120 depending on the edition, but I can't think of anything quite like it. It'll be fascinating to see how it develops.

Thursday, 1 October 2020

Flying with a Brompton

Let's show the ferret to the egg, and just to make things real spicy-like I decided to take my Brompton as well. How did I get along? Continue reading, dear reader, and I'll tell you, although I like to think that Celine Dion was watching out for me. Not just in Lucca, but for the whole trip.

She averted her eyes when I took a shower, but she was there just in case I slipped or the shower failed just as I had lathered up. She helped me choose clothes that would wow the Italians - not an easy task - and at the end of the trip she helped me pack my suitcases and waved me off. Bonne voyage, she said, because she's Canadian and speaks French.

I don't need to thank you, Celine, because you are pure love and adore me unconditionally, but I would like to thank you anyway. Thank you.

I flew from Bristol to Pisa with EasyJet, but spent most of my time in nearby Lucca, which has a mostly pedestrianised walled city just across the road from the train station. I cycled around the walls and then through the old town.

What was the point of going abroad to cycle round in circles? Why not take the train to Swindon and cycle around in circles there? Or Basingstoke, which has one of Britain's few remaining Wimpys? I think I've answered my own question.

Back in May I bought a Brompton B75. It's a small folding bicycle. The B75 has a three-speed gearbox, old-style brake levers, fixed pedals, older components, no mudguards, no pump. It was launched in 2019 as Brompton's budget model. If you want to buy one now, you can't! Brompton sold the last of them in mid 2020. In fact if you want to buy a Brompton at all - any model - the company now has a six-month backlog.

The COVID crisis has been a huge inconvenience for many and a life-altering tragedy for some, but for Brompton and other bicycle manufacturers it has led to a boom in sales. Bromptons are tailor-made for commuting by rail or in the boot of a car, but they're also small enough to take on board an airliner as luggage. In theory they're also small enough to fit in the overhead lockers, but for any number of reasons I can't imagine an airline in 2020 agreeing to let me bring 10kg of hollow, folded metal bars into an airliner cabin.

Several companies, Brompton included, sell wheeled hard cases that swallow the bike and keep it safe. If you plan to drive or take a taxi to and from the airport I heartily recommend a hard case; I opted for a softer option partially because I didn't have time to evaluate a hard case, partially because (ironically) the most popular model of case had sold out in the UK, partially because I don't drive and didn't fancy wheeling a big heavy case to the train station and back.

Instead I picked a popular budget option, which involves a trip to IKEA to buy a couple of Dimpa bags:

The Dimpa is a big square storage bag. It costs around £3 and is exactly the right size for a Brompton, with the seatpost reversed:

One bag is strong enough to carry a Brompton but I used two bags just to make sure, and also to disguise the interior a little bit. I was slightly worried that EasyJet might refuse to take the Brompton - they charge a flat £45 each way for bicycles but, off the top of my head, £20 or so for a 23kg bag - if they knew what it was, but no-one asked me what was inside the bag.

There's also the issue of baggage theft, but it struck me that the handlers would know immediately what was inside the bag no matter how I disguised it, and tying up the bag would be pointless because they could just carry the bag away. My bike's serial number is registered with Brompton, admittedly not much use if it turns up in Indonesia, but still.

The Ingredients List

Two Ikea Dimpa bags

A yoga mat

Several squares of bubbly insulation material

Half a roll of gaffer tape

A pair of removable pedals


Ingredient number two was a cheap yoga mat from Lidl. I wrapped it around the bike, although in this picture I'm just using it as a mat while the bike does a down dog:

It's terrible, isn't it? I didn't get around to buying a thicker mat. It struck me that the two most likely hazards would be slow crushing under a pile of cases, in which case even the thickest yoga mat wouldn't help, or a sudden impact from a case sliding corner-first into the bike, in which case a yoga mat still probably wouldn't help much.

The Brompton's basic design is surprisingly well-protected from impacts around the edge. The saddle, wheels, seatpost bung, and suspension bumper protect the top, bottom, and right-hand-side (as in the picture above). The main chassis fold is protected from hyperextension by the rear wheel pressing against the crossbar.

However the front folds look vulnerable. In particular the little clamps that hold the bike together look as if they might bend, so I unscrewed them. Even if they were just slightly bent the bike would be unusable, and where would I get replacements? I suggest you get hold of a small bubble-wrap bag to store the clamps, otherwise the grease will go everywhere:

At this point I rustled up some makeshift impact pads. I used a bunch of insulation material I had lying around:

Why did I have all of this insulation? In late 2019, in the Before Times, I bought a Trangia portable stove. I wanted to make a pot cosy that would keep the Trangia's thin aluminium pots warm in subzero temperatures, because 2020 was going to be the year I visited the arctic circle. The year I was going to visit the arctic circle twice! Was.

In this photo I've just used a tiny bit of gaffer tape. I'm mocking it all up for the cameras; in real life I used lots of tape, and taped up the tape that so that the pads would stay in place. It's surprisingly hard to tape up a Brompton. I didn't want to put tape over the cables, because I was worried that I might pull them loose when I removed the tape, but threading the tape between bits of the bike was tricky because tape is sticky.

Still, for the next step I took out the pedals. The B75 comes with fixed plastic pedals, but most Bromptons have a folding left pedal (the right pedal doesn't stick out). I bought some removable pedals from a company called MKS. They're nifty:

They come in two pieces. An adapter ring screws into the crank, and the pedal slots into the adapter. In order to remove and replace the pedal you have to pull back the ring and pull out (or push in) the pedal. The system works surprisingly well, although the pedals and too awkward and too greasy to remove if you're just carrying the bike around casually.

After rehearsing all the above at home I then went to the airport, pushing the bike along beside me, with the yoga mat and gaffer tape etc in the Dimpa bag, hanging from the handlebars. It was disconcerting to see Bristol Airport transformed into Combine Airwatch Checkpoint Bristol. My flight left at 06:30 so I had plenty of time to assemble the package, which I had to do outdoors because the landward side of the airport was closed:

Off the top of my head it took around twenty minutes. I used some gaffer tape to keep the bag upright while I slotted the padded Brompton into it, then did the same with the second bag. Carrying the assembled bag was difficult, but I managed to fit it over my shoulder, and I only had to move it short distances at a time.

At Bristol the staff asked me to use the oversized baggage belt; at Pisa they didn't. I should really illustrate this part of the article with photographs of the interior of both airports, but the overall military look of Bristol disconcerted me (Pisa, on the other hand, has not changed much).


Whilst on a plane I wondered if my Brompton would make it intact. This added a welcome note of drama to what would otherwise have been an unexciting flight. The Airbus A320 has a pressurised hold, but at least on the flight from Bristol to Pisa the hold wasn't heated - the Brompton was still cold to the touch when I assembled it outside Pisa airport. This didn't appear to affect the bike in any way.

Pisa is one of the few major tourist destinations in continental Europe that has an airport right at the edge of town. It's at the end of a major street that leads almost directly to the train station. The leaning tower itself is just on the other side of the river. When EasyJet say that they fly to Pisa it is, for once, not a lie. They actually do fly to Pisa.

Pisa itself is very modest, but it's a short train ride from Lucca, Barga, Florence, and the Cinque Terre (in that order):

And also Genoa and Siena if you are so inclined. As of this writing Italy is one of the few places that British people can visit without being quarantined at either end of the journey, but for how much longer?